Foreword.

If you prefer tutorials that come with a framework => check the other wiki tutorial series.
If you prefer tutorials that go step by step without a framework => this page should be ok.

I assume you know C++. If not, this tutorial will probably be hard to understand !

This tutorial presents only a few elements of Ogre3D.

You can download the code and media for this tutorial at the bottom of this wiki page.
This little tutorial is an extract of a bigger project which contains more tutorials & helper classes.
This bigger project is avaible there :
https://sourceforge.net/projects/so3dtools/

Also, make sure you read these tutorials in order!

Tutorial Description

In this program, I create a bunch of simple materials.
I create a mesh. And then I create one Entity of this mesh for each material.
I also create a light and make it rotate between each frame.

After Viewport Creation

add a Light in the scene

¤	Ogre::SceneNode* lLightSceneNode = NULL;
	{
		Ogre::Light* lLight = lScene->createLight();

I can set some attributes of the light.
The basic light type can be :
pointlight (like a candle?)
spotlight (kind of 'conic' light)
directional light (like the sun in an outdoor scene).
Directional light is like parallel rays coming from 1 direction.

¤		lLight->setType(Ogre::Light::LT_DIRECTIONAL);

Here I choose the color of the light.
The diffuse color is the main color of the light.
The specular color is its color when reflected on an imperfect surface.
For example, when my bald head skin reflect the sun, it makes a bright round of specular color.

The final color of an object also depends on its material.

¤		lLight->setDiffuseColour(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
		lLight->setSpecularColour(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);// color of 'reflected' light

		lLightSceneNode = lRootSceneNode->createChildSceneNode();
		lLightSceneNode->attachObject(lLight);
	}

Get reference on a materialmanager singleton

I get a reference on the material manager, which is a singleton.

¤	Ogre::MaterialManager& lMaterialManager = Ogre::MaterialManager::getSingleton();

Load a directory that has some textures

¤	Ogre::String lNameOfResourceGroup = "Mission 1 : Deliver Tom";
	{
		Ogre::ResourceGroupManager& lRgMgr = Ogre::ResourceGroupManager::getSingleton();
		lRgMgr.createResourceGroup(lNameOfResourceGroup);

We say which directories will be loaded by this resourcegroup.
I can add many directories, which will be loaded in same the ORDER.
This ORDER is extremely important : if a material is loaded <i>after</i> a mesh using this material,
this mesh won't be able to find the material during its loading!
I advise you not to use a recursive load (which load the full directory tree).
Seriously, 'recursive loading' often leads to problems.

¤		Ogre::String lDirectoryToLoadTextures = "../../media/textures";
		bool lIsRecursive = false;
		lRgMgr.addResourceLocation(lDirectoryToLoadTextures, "FileSystem", lNameOfResourceGroup, lIsRecursive);

The function 'initialiseResourceGroup' parses scripts if any in the locations.

¤		lRgMgr.initialiseResourceGroup(lNameOfResourceGroup);

Files that can be loaded are loaded.

¤		lRgMgr.loadResourceGroup(lNameOfResourceGroup);

Material presentation & creations

I/ A material allows to configure some parameters used for rendering things.
For example : which color, texture, shader to use.
Once a material has been created, it has got a name (type Ogre::String),
which can be used to retrieve it or apply it to an element.

II/ An Ogre3D material contains 1 or more 'Technique'.
A Material may use more than 1 Technique when it needs to use different levels of visual quality :
Technique : Example 1 : you want your material use 4 texture with a big shader when you are very close to the material,
and you want the same material to use only a grey color without shaders when the material is far away.
Technique : Example 2 : you want your material use 4 texture with a big shader when the program is running on high quality graphic card,
and you want the same material to use only a very simple color when you are on a crappy computer.
As a consequence, in this tutorial, I will use only 1 technique.

III/ A 'Technique' contains 1 or more 'Pass'.
A 'Pass' is 1 rendering operation.
If you got 2 passes in your system, the object that use this material will be drawn 2 times (twice)
at the same place. If the second pass is not transparent / blended at all, it will likely overwrite the first 'Pass'.
You can think of a Pass like 1 'paint layer'. Yes a Layer.
So if you got experience with the Gimp or Photoshop, you see what I mean.
The 'Pass' has got several attributes, which can be very easily tweaked.
The most used are the following :
colors for realtime lighting : ambiant / diffuse / specular / shininess
scene blending mode : this allow to make a transparent 'Pass' (like a glass/window...).
alpha rejection : this allow to make decals (like foliage / trees / grass) easily.
depth write and depth check : manage the ZBuffer. Often necessary to tweak if you use scene blending mode.
color write : to allow color to be drawn or not.
There are several other (including shaders, depth bias, ...).

IV/ A 'Pass' also contains 0 or more 'TextureUnit' (or 'TextureUnitState').
A 'TextureUnit' reference 1 'Texture' (sometimes more, when there is an animated texture or a cubic one).
A 'TextureUnit' has some parameters that will be used on the corresponding texture. The most used are :
The name of the texture (often the name of the 2D file, ex : hello.jpg)
The index of the texture coord (it tells which UV to choose cf Blender/3dsmax/maya).
The kind of environment map (none, planar, spherical, etc ...)
The kind of filtering and the number of mipmaps (this can have great impact on performance!).
There are several other attributes (for merging textures, distording them, animating them...)
Some that allow the use of projective texture mapping.

Most details are in the Ogre Manual (see 'material scripts').
So you should definitely read it.
You should read it.
Read it.

After reading the manual, you might also check the wiki, to see examples of materials.

Now let's see the most common beginners materials.

1/ No lighting.
When you don't use lighting, you see the vertex color.
If there is no vertex color, then the object is white.

¤		{

I create a material, I give it a name.

¤			Ogre::MaterialPtr lMaterial = lMaterialManager.create("M_NoLighting",lNameOfResourceGroup);// this creation is not perfect (as you will see in a later tutorial about manualresourceloader).

The created material has already 1 technique and 1 pass.

¤			Ogre::Technique* lFirstTechnique = lMaterial->getTechnique(0);
			Ogre::Pass* lFirstPass = lFirstTechnique->getPass(0);

No lighting is allowed on this pass. (defaut is 'lighting enabled')

¤			lFirstPass->setLightingEnabled(false);

The corresponding script :

¤/*
material M_NoLighting
{
	technique
	{
		pass
		{
			lighting off
		}
	}
}
*/
		}

2/ No lighting + one texture.

¤		{
			Ogre::MaterialPtr lMaterial = lMaterialManager.create("M_NoLighting+OneTexture",lNameOfResourceGroup);
			Ogre::Technique* lFirstTechnique = lMaterial->getTechnique(0);
			Ogre::Pass* lFirstPass = lFirstTechnique->getPass(0);
			lFirstPass->setLightingEnabled(false);

We create the TextureUnit and tell it to use a specific texture (using it's name).
The texture must be available in a resourcegroup at render time.

¤			Ogre::TextureUnitState* lTextureUnit = lFirstPass->createTextureUnitState();
			lTextureUnit->setTextureName("SimpleTexture.bmp", Ogre::TEX_TYPE_2D);
			lTextureUnit->setTextureCoordSet(0);

The corresponding script :

¤/*
material M_NoLighting+OneTexture
{
	technique
	{
		pass
		{
			lighting off
			texture_unit
			{
				texture SimpleTexture.bmp 2d
				tex_coord_set 0
			}
		}
	}
}
*/
		}

3/ Lighting color.
To have the feeling of '3D', the lighting is good feeling.
It often requires the object to have correct normals (see my manual object construction),
and some lights in the scene.

¤		{
			Ogre::MaterialPtr lMaterial = lMaterialManager.create("M_LightingColor",lNameOfResourceGroup);
			Ogre::Technique* lFirstTechnique = lMaterial->getTechnique(0);
			Ogre::Pass* lFirstPass = lFirstTechnique->getPass(0);

Lighting is allowed on this pass.

¤			lFirstPass->setLightingEnabled(true);

Emissive / self illumination is the color 'produced' by the object.
Color values vary between 0.0(minimum) to 1.0 (maximum).

¤			Ogre::ColourValue lSelfIllumnationColour(0.1f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setSelfIllumination(lSelfIllumnationColour);

diffuse color is the traditionnal color of the lit object.

¤			Ogre::ColourValue lDiffuseColour(1.0f, 0.4f, 0.4f, 1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setDiffuse(lDiffuseColour);

ambient colour is linked to ambient lighting.
If there is no ambient lighting, then this has no influence.
It the ambient lighting is at 1, then this colour is fully added.
This is often use to change the general feeling of a whole scene.

¤			Ogre::ColourValue lAmbientColour(0.4f, 0.1f, 0.1f, 1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setAmbient(lAmbientColour);

specular colour, is the colour of the 'little light reflection'
that you can see on some object. For example, my bald head skin
reflect the sun. This make a 'round of specular lighting'.
Set this to black if you don't want to see it.

¤			Ogre::ColourValue lSpecularColour(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setSpecular(lSpecularColour);

Shininess is the 'inverse of specular color splattering' coefficient.
If this is big (e.g : 64) you get a very tiny dot with a quite strong color (on round surface).
If this is 0, you get a simple color layer (the dot has become very wide).

¤			Ogre::Real lShininess = 64.0f;
			lFirstPass->setShininess(lShininess);

The corresponding script :

¤/*
material M_LightingColor
{
	technique
	{
		pass
		{
			lighting on
			ambient 0.4 0.1 0.1 1.0
			diffuse 1.0 0.4 0.4 1.0
			specular 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 64.0
			emissive 0.1 0.0 0.0 1.0
		}
	}
}
*/
		}

4/ Lighting + one texture.

¤		{
			Ogre::MaterialPtr lMaterial = lMaterialManager.create("M_Lighting+OneTexture",lNameOfResourceGroup);
			Ogre::Technique* lFirstTechnique = lMaterial->getTechnique(0);
			Ogre::Pass* lFirstPass = lFirstTechnique->getPass(0);

			lFirstPass->setDiffuse(0.8f, 0.8f, 0.8f,1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setAmbient(0.3f, 0.3f, 0.3f);
			lFirstPass->setSpecular(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setShininess(64.0f);
			lFirstPass->setSelfIllumination(0.1f, 0.1f, 0.1f);
			
			Ogre::TextureUnitState* lTextureUnit = lFirstPass->createTextureUnitState();
			lTextureUnit->setTextureName("SimpleTexture.bmp", Ogre::TEX_TYPE_2D);
			lTextureUnit->setTextureCoordSet(0);

The corresponding script :

¤/*
material M_Lighting+OneTexture
{
	technique
	{
		pass
		{
			lighting on
			ambient 0.3 0.3 0.3
			diffuse 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0
			specular 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 64.0
			emissive 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0
			texture_unit
			{
				texture SimpleTexture.bmp 2d
				tex_coord_set 0
			}
		}
	}
}
*/
		}

5/ lighting + diffuse map + lightmap.
Here I put both of them in the first pass.
Default behaviour is that their color are multiplied together.

¤		{
			Ogre::MaterialPtr lMaterial = lMaterialManager.create("M_Lighting+DiffuseMap+LightMap",lNameOfResourceGroup);
			Ogre::Technique* lFirstTechnique = lMaterial->getTechnique(0);
			Ogre::Pass* lFirstPass = lFirstTechnique->getPass(0);

			lFirstPass->setDiffuse(0.8f, 0.8f, 0.8f,1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setAmbient(0.3f, 0.3f, 0.3f);
			lFirstPass->setSpecular(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f,1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setShininess(64.0f);
			lFirstPass->setSelfIllumination(0.1f, 0.1f, 0.1f);

			Ogre::TextureUnitState* lTextureUnit = lFirstPass->createTextureUnitState();
			lTextureUnit->setTextureName("SimpleTexture.bmp", Ogre::TEX_TYPE_2D);

This texture use the first texture coordinates.

¤			lTextureUnit->setTextureCoordSet(0);


			Ogre::TextureUnitState* lTextureUnit_LM = lFirstPass->createTextureUnitState();
			lTextureUnit_LM->setTextureName("SimpleTexture2.bmp", Ogre::TEX_TYPE_2D);

The lightmap often don't use the same texture coordinates than the diffuse map.
Here the diffuse is tiled, while the lightmap is not.

¤			lTextureUnit_LM->setTextureCoordSet(1);

The corresponding script :

¤/*
material M_Lighting+DiffuseMap+LightMap
{
	technique
	{
		pass
		{
			lighting on
			ambient 0.3 0.3 0.3
			diffuse 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0
			specular 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 64.0
			emissive 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0
			texture_unit
			{
				texture SimpleTexture.bmp 2d
				tex_coord_set 0
			}
			texture_unit
			{
				texture SimpleTexture2.bmp 2d
				tex_coord_set 1
			}
		}
	}
}
*/
		}

No lighting + 1 texture with percentage influence + 1 texture.

¤		{
			float lPercentageSecondTexture = 0.2f;

			Ogre::MaterialPtr lMaterial = lMaterialManager.create("M_NoLighting+PercentageOnlyOnOneTexture",lNameOfResourceGroup);
			Ogre::Material::TechniqueIterator lIterTechnique = lMaterial->getTechniqueIterator();
			Ogre::Technique* lFirstTechnique = lIterTechnique.getNext();
			Ogre::Technique::PassIterator lIterPass = lFirstTechnique->getPassIterator();
			Ogre::Pass* lFirstPass = lIterPass.getNext();
			lFirstPass->setLightingEnabled(false);

			Ogre::TextureUnitState* lTextureUnit2 = lFirstPass->createTextureUnitState();
			lTextureUnit2->setTextureName("SimpleTexture2.bmp", Ogre::TEX_TYPE_2D);
			lTextureUnit2->setTextureCoordSet(1);

I say that I want to blend manually between the selected texture, and everything that has already been drawn.

¤			lTextureUnit2->setColourOperationEx(Ogre::LBX_BLEND_MANUAL, Ogre::LBS_TEXTURE,
				Ogre::LBS_CURRENT, Ogre::ColourValue::White, Ogre::ColourValue::White, lPercentageSecondTexture); 

			Ogre::TextureUnitState* lTextureUnit = lFirstPass->createTextureUnitState();
			lTextureUnit->setTextureName("SimpleTexture.bmp", Ogre::TEX_TYPE_2D);
			lTextureUnit->setTextureCoordSet(0);

The corresponding script :

¤/*
material M_NoLighting+PercentageOnlyOnOneTexture
{
	technique
	{
		pass
		{
			lighting on
			ambient 0.3 0.3 0.3
			diffuse 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0
			specular 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 64.0
			emissive 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0
			texture_unit
			{
				texture SimpleTexture2.bmp 2d
				tex_coord_set 1
				colour_op_ex blend_manual src_texture src_current 0.2
			}
			texture_unit
			{
				texture SimpleTexture.bmp 2d
				tex_coord_set 0
			}
		}
	}
}
*/
		}

Create a quad mesh, and then an entity for each material

Now I will create a ManualObject quad (as seen in previous tutorial).
There are some differences, because this time I give information about
texture coord and normal in the vertices.
I will create 2 set of texture coordinates, the first will be tiled (like building)
and the second won't (like a lightmap).

¤		Ogre::ManualObject * lManualObject = NULL;
		{
			Ogre::String lManualObjectName = "SomeQuad";
			lManualObject = lScene->createManualObject(lManualObjectName);

Always tell if you want to update the 3D (vertex/index) later or not.

¤			bool lDoIWantToUpdateItLater = false;
			lManualObject->setDynamic(lDoIWantToUpdateItLater);

BaseWhiteNoLighting is the name of a material that already exist inside Ogre.
Ogre::RenderOperation::OT_TRIANGLE_LIST is a kind of primitive.

¤			float lSize = 0.7f;
			lManualObject->begin("BaseWhiteNoLighting", Ogre::RenderOperation::OT_TRIANGLE_LIST);
			{
				float cp = 1.0f * lSize ;
				float cm = -1.0f * lSize;
				float lDiffuseScale = 3.0f;
				float lLightmapScale = 1.0f;

				lManualObject->position(cm, cp, 0.0f);// a vertex
				lManualObject->colour(Ogre::ColourValue(0.0f,1.0f,0.0f,1.0f));
				lManualObject->normal(0.0, 0.0, 1.0f);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(0.0f, 0.0f);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(0.0f, 0.0f);

				lManualObject->position(cp, cp, 0.0f);// a vertex
				lManualObject->colour(Ogre::ColourValue(1.0f,1.0f,0.0f,1.0f));
				lManualObject->normal(0.0, 0.0, 1.0f);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(lDiffuseScale, 0.0f);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(lLightmapScale, 0.0f);

				lManualObject->position(cp, cm, 0.0f);// a vertex
				lManualObject->colour(Ogre::ColourValue(1.0f,0.0f,0.0f,1.0f));
				lManualObject->normal(0.0, 0.0, 1.0f);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(lDiffuseScale, lDiffuseScale);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(lLightmapScale, lLightmapScale);

				lManualObject->position(cm, cm, 0.0f);// a vertex
				lManualObject->colour(Ogre::ColourValue(0.0f,0.0f,0.0f,1.0f));
				lManualObject->normal(0.0, 0.0, 1.0f);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(0.0, lDiffuseScale);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(0.0, lLightmapScale);

				lManualObject->triangle(2,1,0);
				lManualObject->triangle(0,3,2);
			}
			lManualObject->end();
		}
		
		Ogre::String lNameOfTheMesh = "MyQuad";
		lManualObject->convertToMesh(lNameOfTheMesh);

I create an entity for each material, from left to right.

¤		std::vector< Ogre::String > lMaterialNames;
		lMaterialNames.push_back("M_NoLighting");
		lMaterialNames.push_back("M_NoLighting+OneTexture");
		lMaterialNames.push_back("M_LightingColor");
		lMaterialNames.push_back("M_Lighting+OneTexture");
		lMaterialNames.push_back("M_Lighting+DiffuseMap+LightMap");

		unsigned int lNumberOfEntities = lMaterialNames.size();
		for(unsigned int iter = 0; iter < lNumberOfEntities; ++iter)
		{
			Ogre::Entity* lEntity = lScene->createEntity(lNameOfTheMesh);

Now I attach it to a scenenode, so that it becomes present in the scene.

¤			Ogre::SceneNode* lNode = lRootSceneNode->createChildSceneNode();
			lNode->attachObject(lEntity);

I move the SceneNode so that it is visible to the camera.

¤			float lPositionOffset = float(1+ iter * 2) - (float(lNumberOfEntities));
			lNode->translate(lPositionOffset, 0.0, -10.0f);
			const Ogre::String& lMaterialName = lMaterialNames[iter];
			lEntity->setMaterialName(lMaterialName);
		}

In the while()

I make the light rotate.

¤			Ogre::Degree lAngle(2.5);
			lLightSceneNode->yaw(lAngle);

main.cpp

// In this program, I create a bunch of simple materials.
// I create a mesh. And then I create one Entity of this mesh for each material.
// I also create a light and make it rotate between each frame.

// I will use std::auto_ptr so I need to include 'memory'. 
// If you don't know std::auto_ptr, you should check some C++ tutorials/lesson on this matter.
#include <memory>
// I will check for std::exception. If you don't know what exception/try/catch means, you should learn C++ first.
#include <exception>

// These are some files that we need to include to use Ogre3D. Note that you can at the beginnings use directly "Ogre.h", to include lots of commonly used classes.
#include "OGRE/OgreRoot.h"
#include "OGRE/OgreRenderSystem.h"
#include "OGRE/OgreRenderWindow.h"
#include "OGRE/OgreWindowEventUtilities.h"
#include "OGRE/OgreManualObject.h"
#include "OGRE/OgreEntity.h"
#include "OGRE/OgreMaterialManager.h"

//Here I include my other files, like the one for SimpleOgreInit...
#include "SimpleOgreInit.h"

#include "EasyDefines.h"

// I declare a function in which I will make my whole application.
// This is easy then to add more things later in that function.
// The main will call this function and take care of the global try/catch.
void AnOgreApplication()
{
	// I construct my object that will allow me to initialise Ogre easily.
	OgreEasy::SimpleOgreInit lOgreInit;

	if(!lOgreInit.initOgre())
	{
		std::cout<<"Impossible to init Ogre correctly."<<std::endl;
		return;
	}

	//I prefer to be able to access my variables directly.
	Ogre::Root* lRoot = lOgreInit.mRoot.get();
	Ogre::RenderWindow* lWindow = lOgreInit.mWindow;

	// I create a scenemanager. This is like a 'Scene', in which I can put lights, 3d objects, etc...
	// The scenemanager contains an arborescent graph of 'SceneNodes'. To manage elements of the scene,
	// I will create SceneNodes in the SceneManager, and attach the elements to the scenenodes.
	// First parameter : I select a kind of SceneManager. This may have a huge impact on performance.
	// Depending on your scene, some are better than other. The default one does no optimization at all.
	// Second parameter : I give a name to the scenemanager.
	// Note : It is easy to have more than one scenemanager (If you got 2 different scenes for example).
	Ogre::SceneManager* lScene = lRoot->createSceneManager(Ogre::ST_GENERIC, "MyFirstSceneManager");

	// The 'root SceneNode' is the only scenenode at the beginning in the SceneManager.
	// The SceneNodes can be seen as 'transformation' containers <=> it contains scale/position/rotation
	// of the objects. There is only 1 root scenenode, and all other scenenode are 
	// its direct or indirect children.
	Ogre::SceneNode* lRootSceneNode = lScene->getRootSceneNode();

	// I create a camera. It represent a 'point of view' in the scene.
	Ogre::Camera* lCamera = lScene->createCamera("MyFirstCamera");

	// I attach the camera to a new SceneNode. It will be easier then to move it in the scene.
	Ogre::SceneNode* lCameraNode = lRootSceneNode->createChildSceneNode("MyFirstCameraNode");
	lCameraNode->attachObject(lCamera);

	// We create a viewport on a part of the window.
	// A viewport is the link between 1 camera and 1 drawing surface (here the window).
	// I can then call 'update();' on it to make it draw the Scene from the camera.
	// You can have several viewports on 1 window.
	// Check API for details on parameters.
	float lViewportWidth = 0.88f;
	float lViewportHeight = 0.88f;
	float lViewportLeft	= (1.0f - lViewportWidth) * 0.5f;
	float lViewportTop = (1.0f - lViewportHeight) * 0.5f;
	unsigned short lMainViewportZOrder = 100;
	Ogre::Viewport * vp = lWindow->addViewport(lCamera, lMainViewportZOrder, lViewportLeft, lViewportTop, lViewportWidth, lViewportHeight);

	// I want the viewport to draw the scene automatically
	// when I will call lWindow->update();
	vp->setAutoUpdated(true);

	// I choose a color for this viewport. 
	// I prefer to have a bright color, to detect holes in geometry etc...
	vp->setBackgroundColour(Ogre::ColourValue(1,0,1));

	// I choose the visual ratio of the camera. To make it looks real, I want it the same as the viewport.
	float ratio = float(vp->getActualWidth()) / float(vp->getActualHeight());
	lCamera->setAspectRatio(ratio);

	// I choose the clipping far& near planes. if far/near>2000, you can get z buffer problem.
	// eg : far/near = 10000/5 = 2000 . it's ok.
	// If (far/near)>2000 then you will likely get 'z fighting' issues.
	lCamera->setNearClipDistance(1.5f);
	lCamera->setFarClipDistance(3000.0f); 

	// I want my window to be active
	lWindow->setActive(true);

	// I want to update myself the content of the window, not automatically.
	lWindow->setAutoUpdated(false);

	// I create a light. The scenemanager will contain it.
	// I will attach this light to a scenenode, so that I can move it easily.
	// (This will add 1 transformation matrix, but I prefer to control motion homogeneously for all elements).
	Ogre::SceneNode* lLightSceneNode = NULL;
	{
		Ogre::Light* lLight = lScene->createLight();

		// I can set some attributes of the light.
		// The basic light type can be : 
		//		pointlight (like a candle?)
		//		spotlight (kind of 'conic' light)
		//		directional light (like the sun in an outdoor scene).
		// Directional light is like parallel rays coming from 1 direction.
		lLight->setType(Ogre::Light::LT_DIRECTIONAL);

		// Here I choose the color of the light.
		// The diffuse color is the main color of the light.
		// The specular color is its color when reflected on an imperfect surface.
		// For example, when my bald head skin reflect the sun, it makes a bright round of specular color.
		//
		// The final color of an object also depends on its material.
		lLight->setDiffuseColour(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
		lLight->setSpecularColour(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);// color of 'reflected' light

		lLightSceneNode = lRootSceneNode->createChildSceneNode();
		lLightSceneNode->attachObject(lLight);
	}
	
	// I get a reference on the material manager, which is a singleton.
	Ogre::MaterialManager& lMaterialManager = Ogre::MaterialManager::getSingleton();

	// Here I choose a name for a resource group. Then I create it.
	// Often, a resourcegroup is a good way to store the data corresponding
	// to a level in a game.
	Ogre::String lNameOfResourceGroup = "Mission 1 : Deliver Tom";
	{
		Ogre::ResourceGroupManager& lRgMgr = Ogre::ResourceGroupManager::getSingleton();
		lRgMgr.createResourceGroup(lNameOfResourceGroup);
		
		// We say which directories will be loaded by this resourcegroup.
		// I can add many directories, which will be loaded in same the ORDER.
		// This ORDER is extremely important : if a material is loaded <i>after</i> a mesh using this material,
		// this mesh won't be able to find the material during its loading!
		// I advise you not to use a recursive load (which load the full directory tree). 
		// Seriously, 'recursive loading' often leads to problems.
		Ogre::String lDirectoryToLoadTextures = "../../media/textures";
		bool lIsRecursive = false;
		lRgMgr.addResourceLocation(lDirectoryToLoadTextures, "FileSystem", lNameOfResourceGroup, lIsRecursive);
		
		// The function 'initialiseResourceGroup' parses scripts if any in the locations.
		lRgMgr.initialiseResourceGroup(lNameOfResourceGroup);

		// Files that can be loaded are loaded.
		lRgMgr.loadResourceGroup(lNameOfResourceGroup);

		// I/ A material allows to configure some parameters used for rendering things.
		// For example : which color, texture, shader to use.
		// Once a material has been created, it has got a name (type Ogre::String),
		// which can be used to retrieve it or apply it to an element.
		// 
		// II/ An Ogre3D material contains 1 or more 'Technique'.
		// A Material may use more than 1 Technique when it needs to use different levels of visual quality :
		// Technique : Example 1 : you want your material use 4 texture with a big shader when you are very close to the material,
		// and you want the same material to use only a grey color without shaders when the material is far away.
		// Technique : Example 2 : you want your material use 4 texture with a big shader when the program is running on high quality graphic card,
		// and you want the same material to use only a very simple color when you are on a crappy computer.
		// As a consequence, in this tutorial, I will use only 1 technique.
		// 
		// III/ A 'Technique' contains 1 or more 'Pass'.
		// A 'Pass' is 1 rendering operation. 
		// If you got 2 passes in your system, the object that use this material will be drawn 2 times (twice)
		// at the same place. If the second pass is not transparent / blended at all, it will likely overwrite the first 'Pass'.
		// You can think of a Pass like 1 'paint layer'. Yes a Layer.
		// So if you got experience with the Gimp or Photoshop, you see what I mean.
		// The 'Pass' has got several attributes, which can be very easily tweaked.
		// The most used are the following :
		// colors for realtime lighting : ambiant / diffuse / specular / shininess
		// scene blending mode : this allow to make a transparent 'Pass' (like a glass/window...).
		// alpha rejection : this allow to make decals (like foliage / trees / grass) easily.
		// depth write and depth check : manage the ZBuffer. Often necessary to tweak if you use scene blending mode.
		// color write : to allow color to be drawn or not.
		// There are several other (including shaders, depth bias, ...).
		//
		// IV/ A 'Pass' also contains 0 or more 'TextureUnit' (or 'TextureUnitState').
		// A 'TextureUnit' reference 1 'Texture' (sometimes more, when there is an animated texture or a cubic one).
		// A 'TextureUnit' has some parameters that will be used on the corresponding texture. The most used are :
		// The name of the texture (often the name of the 2D file, ex : hello.jpg)
		// The index of the texture coord (it tells which UV to choose cf Blender/3dsmax/maya).
		// The kind of environment map (none, planar, spherical, etc ...)
		// The kind of filtering and the number of mipmaps (this can have great impact on performance!).
		// There are several other attributes (for merging textures, distording them, animating them...)
		// Some that allow the use of projective texture mapping.
		//
		// Most details are in the Ogre Manual (see 'material scripts'). 
		// So you should definitely read it.
		// You should read it.
		// Read it.
		//
		// After reading the manual, you might also check the wiki, to see examples of materials.

		// Now let's see the most common beginners materials.

		// 1/ No lighting.
		// When you don't use lighting, you see the vertex color.
		// If there is no vertex color, then the object is white.
		{
			// I create a material, I give it a name.
			Ogre::MaterialPtr lMaterial = lMaterialManager.create("M_NoLighting",lNameOfResourceGroup);// this creation is not perfect (as you will see in a later tutorial about manualresourceloader).
			
			// The created material has already 1 technique and 1 pass.
			Ogre::Technique* lFirstTechnique = lMaterial->getTechnique(0);
			Ogre::Pass* lFirstPass = lFirstTechnique->getPass(0);

			// No lighting is allowed on this pass. (defaut is 'lighting enabled')
			lFirstPass->setLightingEnabled(false);
			// The corresponding script :
/*
material M_NoLighting
{
	technique
	{
		pass
		{
			lighting off
		}
	}
}
*/
		}
		
		// 2/ No lighting + one texture.
		{
			Ogre::MaterialPtr lMaterial = lMaterialManager.create("M_NoLighting+OneTexture",lNameOfResourceGroup);
			Ogre::Technique* lFirstTechnique = lMaterial->getTechnique(0);
			Ogre::Pass* lFirstPass = lFirstTechnique->getPass(0);
			lFirstPass->setLightingEnabled(false);

			// We create the TextureUnit and tell it to use a specific texture (using it's name).
			// The texture must be available in a resourcegroup at render time.
			Ogre::TextureUnitState* lTextureUnit = lFirstPass->createTextureUnitState();
			lTextureUnit->setTextureName("SimpleTexture.bmp", Ogre::TEX_TYPE_2D);
			lTextureUnit->setTextureCoordSet(0);
			// The corresponding script :
/*
material M_NoLighting+OneTexture
{
	technique
	{
		pass
		{
			lighting off
			texture_unit
			{
				texture SimpleTexture.bmp 2d
				tex_coord_set 0
			}
		}
	}
}
*/
		}

		// 3/ Lighting color.
		// To have the feeling of '3D', the lighting is good feeling.
		// It often requires the object to have correct normals (see my manual object construction), 
		// and some lights in the scene.
		{
			Ogre::MaterialPtr lMaterial = lMaterialManager.create("M_LightingColor",lNameOfResourceGroup);
			Ogre::Technique* lFirstTechnique = lMaterial->getTechnique(0);
			Ogre::Pass* lFirstPass = lFirstTechnique->getPass(0);
			
			// Lighting is allowed on this pass.
			lFirstPass->setLightingEnabled(true);

			// Emissive / self illumination is the color 'produced' by the object.
			// Color values vary between 0.0(minimum) to 1.0 (maximum).
			Ogre::ColourValue lSelfIllumnationColour(0.1f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setSelfIllumination(lSelfIllumnationColour);

			// diffuse color is the traditionnal color of the lit object.
			Ogre::ColourValue lDiffuseColour(1.0f, 0.4f, 0.4f, 1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setDiffuse(lDiffuseColour);

			// ambient colour is linked to ambient lighting.
			// If there is no ambient lighting, then this has no influence.
			// It the ambient lighting is at 1, then this colour is fully added.
			// This is often use to change the general feeling of a whole scene.
			Ogre::ColourValue lAmbientColour(0.4f, 0.1f, 0.1f, 1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setAmbient(lAmbientColour);

			// specular colour, is the colour of the 'little light reflection'
			// that you can see on some object. For example, my bald head skin
			// reflect the sun. This make a 'round of specular lighting'.
			// Set this to black if you don't want to see it.
			Ogre::ColourValue lSpecularColour(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setSpecular(lSpecularColour);

			// Shininess is the 'inverse of specular color splattering' coefficient.
			// If this is big (e.g : 64) you get a very tiny dot with a quite strong color (on round surface).
			// If this is 0, you get a simple color layer (the dot has become very wide).
			Ogre::Real lShininess = 64.0f;
			lFirstPass->setShininess(lShininess);
			// The corresponding script :
/*
material M_LightingColor
{
	technique
	{
		pass
		{
			lighting on
			ambient 0.4 0.1 0.1 1.0
			diffuse 1.0 0.4 0.4 1.0
			specular 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 64.0
			emissive 0.1 0.0 0.0 1.0
		}
	}
}
*/
		}

		// 4/ Lighting + one texture.
		{
			Ogre::MaterialPtr lMaterial = lMaterialManager.create("M_Lighting+OneTexture",lNameOfResourceGroup);
			Ogre::Technique* lFirstTechnique = lMaterial->getTechnique(0);
			Ogre::Pass* lFirstPass = lFirstTechnique->getPass(0);

			lFirstPass->setDiffuse(0.8f, 0.8f, 0.8f,1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setAmbient(0.3f, 0.3f, 0.3f);
			lFirstPass->setSpecular(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setShininess(64.0f);
			lFirstPass->setSelfIllumination(0.1f, 0.1f, 0.1f);
			
			Ogre::TextureUnitState* lTextureUnit = lFirstPass->createTextureUnitState();
			lTextureUnit->setTextureName("SimpleTexture.bmp", Ogre::TEX_TYPE_2D);
			lTextureUnit->setTextureCoordSet(0);
			// The corresponding script :
/*
material M_Lighting+OneTexture
{
	technique
	{
		pass
		{
			lighting on
			ambient 0.3 0.3 0.3
			diffuse 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0
			specular 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 64.0
			emissive 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0
			texture_unit
			{
				texture SimpleTexture.bmp 2d
				tex_coord_set 0
			}
		}
	}
}
*/
		}

		// 5/ lighting + diffuse map + lightmap.
		// Here I put both of them in the first pass.
		// Default behaviour is that their color are multiplied together.
		{
			Ogre::MaterialPtr lMaterial = lMaterialManager.create("M_Lighting+DiffuseMap+LightMap",lNameOfResourceGroup);
			Ogre::Technique* lFirstTechnique = lMaterial->getTechnique(0);
			Ogre::Pass* lFirstPass = lFirstTechnique->getPass(0);

			lFirstPass->setDiffuse(0.8f, 0.8f, 0.8f,1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setAmbient(0.3f, 0.3f, 0.3f);
			lFirstPass->setSpecular(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f,1.0f);
			lFirstPass->setShininess(64.0f);
			lFirstPass->setSelfIllumination(0.1f, 0.1f, 0.1f);

			Ogre::TextureUnitState* lTextureUnit = lFirstPass->createTextureUnitState();
			lTextureUnit->setTextureName("SimpleTexture.bmp", Ogre::TEX_TYPE_2D);
			// This texture use the first texture coordinates.
			lTextureUnit->setTextureCoordSet(0);


			Ogre::TextureUnitState* lTextureUnit_LM = lFirstPass->createTextureUnitState();
			lTextureUnit_LM->setTextureName("SimpleTexture2.bmp", Ogre::TEX_TYPE_2D);
			// The lightmap often don't use the same texture coordinates than the diffuse map.
			// Here the diffuse is tiled, while the lightmap is not.
			lTextureUnit_LM->setTextureCoordSet(1);
// The corresponding script :
/*
material M_Lighting+DiffuseMap+LightMap
{
	technique
	{
		pass
		{
			lighting on
			ambient 0.3 0.3 0.3
			diffuse 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0
			specular 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 64.0
			emissive 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0
			texture_unit
			{
				texture SimpleTexture.bmp 2d
				tex_coord_set 0
			}
			texture_unit
			{
				texture SimpleTexture2.bmp 2d
				tex_coord_set 1
			}
		}
	}
}
*/
		}
		

		// No lighting + 1 texture with percentage influence + 1 texture.
		{
			float lPercentageSecondTexture = 0.2f;

			Ogre::MaterialPtr lMaterial = lMaterialManager.create("M_NoLighting+PercentageOnlyOnOneTexture",lNameOfResourceGroup);
			Ogre::Material::TechniqueIterator lIterTechnique = lMaterial->getTechniqueIterator();
			Ogre::Technique* lFirstTechnique = lIterTechnique.getNext();
			Ogre::Technique::PassIterator lIterPass = lFirstTechnique->getPassIterator();
			Ogre::Pass* lFirstPass = lIterPass.getNext();
			lFirstPass->setLightingEnabled(false);

			Ogre::TextureUnitState* lTextureUnit2 = lFirstPass->createTextureUnitState();
			lTextureUnit2->setTextureName("SimpleTexture2.bmp", Ogre::TEX_TYPE_2D);
			lTextureUnit2->setTextureCoordSet(1);
			// I say that I want to blend manually between the selected texture, and everything that has already been drawn.
			lTextureUnit2->setColourOperationEx(Ogre::LBX_BLEND_MANUAL, Ogre::LBS_TEXTURE,
				Ogre::LBS_CURRENT, Ogre::ColourValue::White, Ogre::ColourValue::White, lPercentageSecondTexture); 

			Ogre::TextureUnitState* lTextureUnit = lFirstPass->createTextureUnitState();
			lTextureUnit->setTextureName("SimpleTexture.bmp", Ogre::TEX_TYPE_2D);
			lTextureUnit->setTextureCoordSet(0);
			// The corresponding script :
/*
material M_NoLighting+PercentageOnlyOnOneTexture
{
	technique
	{
		pass
		{
			lighting on
			ambient 0.3 0.3 0.3
			diffuse 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0
			specular 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 64.0
			emissive 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0
			texture_unit
			{
				texture SimpleTexture2.bmp 2d
				tex_coord_set 1
				colour_op_ex blend_manual src_texture src_current 0.2
			}
			texture_unit
			{
				texture SimpleTexture.bmp 2d
				tex_coord_set 0
			}
		}
	}
}
*/
		}

		// Now I will create a ManualObject quad (as seen in previous tutorial).
		// There are some differences, because this time I give information about
		// texture coord and normal in the vertices.
		// I will create 2 set of texture coordinates, the first will be tiled (like building)
		// and the second won't (like a lightmap).
		Ogre::ManualObject * lManualObject = NULL;
		{
			Ogre::String lManualObjectName = "SomeQuad";
			lManualObject = lScene->createManualObject(lManualObjectName);

			// Always tell if you want to update the 3D (vertex/index) later or not.
			bool lDoIWantToUpdateItLater = false;
			lManualObject->setDynamic(lDoIWantToUpdateItLater);

			// BaseWhiteNoLighting is the name of a material that already exist inside Ogre.
			// Ogre::RenderOperation::OT_TRIANGLE_LIST is a kind of primitive.
			float lSize = 0.7f;
			lManualObject->begin("BaseWhiteNoLighting", Ogre::RenderOperation::OT_TRIANGLE_LIST);
			{
				float cp = 1.0f * lSize ;
				float cm = -1.0f * lSize;
				float lDiffuseScale = 3.0f;
				float lLightmapScale = 1.0f;

				lManualObject->position(cm, cp, 0.0f);// a vertex
				lManualObject->colour(Ogre::ColourValue(0.0f,1.0f,0.0f,1.0f));
				lManualObject->normal(0.0, 0.0, 1.0f);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(0.0f, 0.0f);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(0.0f, 0.0f);

				lManualObject->position(cp, cp, 0.0f);// a vertex
				lManualObject->colour(Ogre::ColourValue(1.0f,1.0f,0.0f,1.0f));
				lManualObject->normal(0.0, 0.0, 1.0f);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(lDiffuseScale, 0.0f);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(lLightmapScale, 0.0f);

				lManualObject->position(cp, cm, 0.0f);// a vertex
				lManualObject->colour(Ogre::ColourValue(1.0f,0.0f,0.0f,1.0f));
				lManualObject->normal(0.0, 0.0, 1.0f);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(lDiffuseScale, lDiffuseScale);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(lLightmapScale, lLightmapScale);

				lManualObject->position(cm, cm, 0.0f);// a vertex
				lManualObject->colour(Ogre::ColourValue(0.0f,0.0f,0.0f,1.0f));
				lManualObject->normal(0.0, 0.0, 1.0f);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(0.0, lDiffuseScale);
				lManualObject->textureCoord(0.0, lLightmapScale);

				lManualObject->triangle(2,1,0);
				lManualObject->triangle(0,3,2);
			}
			lManualObject->end();
		}
		
		Ogre::String lNameOfTheMesh = "MyQuad";
		lManualObject->convertToMesh(lNameOfTheMesh);

		// I create an entity for each material, from left to right.
		std::vector< Ogre::String > lMaterialNames;
		lMaterialNames.push_back("M_NoLighting");
		lMaterialNames.push_back("M_NoLighting+OneTexture");
		lMaterialNames.push_back("M_LightingColor");
		lMaterialNames.push_back("M_Lighting+OneTexture");
		lMaterialNames.push_back("M_Lighting+DiffuseMap+LightMap");

		unsigned int lNumberOfEntities = lMaterialNames.size();
		for(unsigned int iter = 0; iter < lNumberOfEntities; ++iter)
		{
			Ogre::Entity* lEntity = lScene->createEntity(lNameOfTheMesh);
			// Now I attach it to a scenenode, so that it becomes present in the scene.
			Ogre::SceneNode* lNode = lRootSceneNode->createChildSceneNode();
			lNode->attachObject(lEntity);
			// I move the SceneNode so that it is visible to the camera.
			float lPositionOffset = float(1+ iter * 2) - (float(lNumberOfEntities));
			lNode->translate(lPositionOffset, 0.0, -10.0f);
			const Ogre::String& lMaterialName = lMaterialNames[iter];
			lEntity->setMaterialName(lMaterialName);
		}
	}
	

	// cleaning of windows events managed by Ogre::WindowEventUtilities::...
	// I call it after a 'pause in window updating', in order to maintain smoothness.
	// Explanation : if you clicked 2000 times when the windows was being created, there are 
	// at least 2000 messages created by the OS to listen to. This is made to clean them.
	lRoot->clearEventTimes();

	// I wait until the window is closed.
	// The "message pump" thing is something you will see in most GUI application.
	// It allow the binding of messages between the application and the OS.
	// These messages are most of the time : keystroke, mouse moved, ... or window closed.
	// If I don't do this, the message are never caught, and the window won't close.
	while(!lOgreInit.mWindow->isClosed())
	{
		// Here I update the scene between 2 frames.
		{
			// I make the light rotate.
			Ogre::Degree lAngle(2.5);
			lLightSceneNode->yaw(lAngle);
		}

		// Drawings
		// the window update its content.
		// each viewport that is 'autoupdated' will be redrawn now,
		// in order given by its z-order.
		lWindow->update(false);

		// The drawn surface is then shown on the screen
		// (google "double buffering" if you want more details).
		// I always use vertical synchro.
		bool lVerticalSynchro = true;
		lWindow->swapBuffers(lVerticalSynchro);

		// This update some internal counters and listeners.
		// Each render surface (window/rtt/mrt) that is 'auto-updated' has got its 'update' function called.
		lRoot->renderOneFrame();
		
		Ogre::WindowEventUtilities::messagePump();
	}

	// Let's cleanup!
	{
		lWindow->removeAllViewports();
	}
	{
		lScene->destroyAllCameras();
		lScene->destroyAllManualObjects();
		lScene->destroyAllEntities();
		lScene->destroyAllLights();
		lRootSceneNode->removeAndDestroyAllChildren();
	}
	{
		Ogre::ResourceGroupManager& lRgMgr = Ogre::ResourceGroupManager::getSingleton();
		lRgMgr.destroyResourceGroup(lNameOfResourceGroup);
	}

	return;
}

int main()
{
	try
	{
		AnOgreApplication();
		std::cout<<"end of the program"<<std::endl;
	}catch(Ogre::Exception &e)
	{
		MWARNING("!!!!Ogre::Exception!!!!\n"<<e.what());
	}catch(std::exception &e)
	{
		MWARNING("!!!!std::exception!!!!\n"<<e.what());
	}
	return 0;
}

Full program sources:
http://sourceforge.net/projects/so3dtools/files/Ogre3DWiki/07_BasicMaterials.7z/download

<HR>
Creative Commons Copyright -- Some rights reserved.


THE WORK (AS DEFINED BELOW) IS PROVIDED UNDER THE TERMS OF THIS CREATIVE COMMONS PUBLIC LICENSE ("CCPL" OR "LICENSE"). THE WORK IS PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT AND/OR OTHER APPLICABLE LAW. ANY USE OF THE WORK OTHER THAN AS AUTHORIZED UNDER THIS LICENSE OR COPYRIGHT LAW IS PROHIBITED.

BY EXERCISING ANY RIGHTS TO THE WORK PROVIDED HERE, YOU ACCEPT AND AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS LICENSE. THE LICENSOR GRANTS YOU THE RIGHTS CONTAINED HERE IN CONSIDERATION OF YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF SUCH TERMS AND CONDITIONS.

1. Definitions

  • "Collective Work" means a work, such as a periodical issue, anthology or encyclopedia, in which the Work in its entirety in unmodified form, along with a number of other contributions, constituting separate and independent works in themselves, are assembled into a collective whole. A work that constitutes a Collective Work will not be considered a Derivative Work (as defined below) for the purposes of this License.
  • "Derivative Work" means a work based upon the Work or upon the Work and other pre-existing works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which the Work may be recast, transformed, or adapted, except that a work that constitutes a Collective Work will not be considered a Derivative Work for the purpose of this License. For the avoidance of doubt, where the Work is a musical composition or sound recording, the synchronization of the Work in timed-relation with a moving image ("synching") will be considered a Derivative Work for the purpose of this License.
  • "Licensor" means the individual or entity that offers the Work under the terms of this License.
  • "Original Author" means the individual or entity who created the Work.
  • "Work" means the copyrightable work of authorship offered under the terms of this License.
  • "You" means an individual or entity exercising rights under this License who has not previously violated the terms of this License with respect to the Work, or who has received express permission from the Licensor to exercise rights under this License despite a previous violation.
  • "License Elements" means the following high-level license attributes as selected by Licensor and indicated in the title of this License: Attribution, ShareAlike.

2. Fair Use Rights

Nothing in this license is intended to reduce, limit, or restrict any rights arising from fair use, first sale or other limitations on the exclusive rights of the copyright owner under copyright law or other applicable laws.

3. License Grant

Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, Licensor hereby grants You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright) license to exercise the rights in the Work as stated below:

  • to reproduce the Work, to incorporate the Work into one or more Collective Works, and to reproduce the Work as incorporated in the Collective Works;
  • to create and reproduce Derivative Works;
  • to distribute copies or phonorecords of, display publicly, perform publicly, and perform publicly by means of a digital audio transmission the Work including as incorporated in Collective Works;
  • to distribute copies or phonorecords of, display publicly, perform publicly, and perform publicly by means of a digital audio transmission Derivative Works.
  • For the avoidance of doubt, where the work is a musical composition:
    • Performance Royalties Under Blanket Licenses. Licensor waives the exclusive right to collect, whether individually or via a performance rights society (e.g. ASCAP, BMI, SESAC), royalties for the public performance or public digital performance (e.g. webcast) of the Work.
    • Mechanical Rights and Statutory Royalties. Licensor waives the exclusive right to collect, whether individually or via a music rights society or designated agent (e.g. Harry Fox Agency), royalties for any phonorecord You create from the Work ("cover version") and distribute, subject to the compulsory license created by 17 USC Section 115 of the US Copyright Act (or the equivalent in other jurisdictions).
    • Webcasting Rights and Statutory Royalties. For the avoidance of doubt, where the Work is a sound recording, Licensor waives the exclusive right to collect, whether individually or via a performance-rights society (e.g. SoundExchange), royalties for the public digital performance (e.g. webcast) of the Work, subject to the compulsory license created by 17 USC Section 114 of the US Copyright Act (or the equivalent in other jurisdictions).


The above rights may be exercised in all media and formats whether now known or hereafter devised. The above rights include the right to make such modifications as are technically necessary to exercise the rights in other media and formats. All rights not expressly granted by Licensor are hereby reserved.

4. Restrictions

The license granted in Section 3 above is expressly made subject to and limited by the following restrictions:

  • You may distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform the Work only under the terms of this License, and You must include a copy of, or the Uniform Resource Identifier for, this License with every copy or phonorecord of the Work You distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform. You may not offer or impose any terms on the Work that alter or restrict the terms of this License or the recipients' exercise of the rights granted hereunder. You may not sublicense the Work. You must keep intact all notices that refer to this License and to the disclaimer of warranties. You may not distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform the Work with any technological measures that control access or use of the Work in a manner inconsistent with the terms of this License Agreement. The above applies to the Work as incorporated in a Collective Work, but this does not require the Collective Work apart from the Work itself to be made subject to the terms of this License. If You create a Collective Work, upon notice from any Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Collective Work any credit as required by clause 4(c), as requested. If You create a Derivative Work, upon notice from any Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Derivative Work any credit as required by clause 4(c), as requested.
  • You may distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform a Derivative Work only under the terms of this License, a later version of this License with the same License Elements as this License, or a Creative Commons iCommons license that contains the same License Elements as this License (e.g. Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 Japan). You must include a copy of, or the Uniform Resource Identifier for, this License or other license specified in the previous sentence with every copy or phonorecord of each Derivative Work You distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform. You may not offer or impose any terms on the Derivative Works that alter or restrict the terms of this License or the recipients' exercise of the rights granted hereunder, and You must keep intact all notices that refer to this License and to the disclaimer of warranties. You may not distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform the Derivative Work with any technological measures that control access or use of the Work in a manner inconsistent with the terms of this License Agreement. The above applies to the Derivative Work as incorporated in a Collective Work, but this does not require the Collective Work apart from the Derivative Work itself to be made subject to the terms of this License.
  • If you distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform the Work or any Derivative Works or Collective Works, You must keep intact all copyright notices for the Work and provide, reasonable to the medium or means You are utilizing: (i) the name of the Original Author (or pseudonym, if applicable) if supplied, and/or (ii) if the Original Author and/or Licensor designate another party or parties (e.g. a sponsor institute, publishing entity, journal) for attribution in Licensor's copyright notice, terms of service or by other reasonable means, the name of such party or parties; the title of the Work if supplied; to the extent reasonably practicable, the Uniform Resource Identifier, if any, that Licensor specifies to be associated with the Work, unless such URI does not refer to the copyright notice or licensing information for the Work; and in the case of a Derivative Work, a credit identifying the use of the Work in the Derivative Work (e.g., "French translation of the Work by Original Author," or "Screenplay based on original Work by Original Author"). Such credit may be implemented in any reasonable manner; provided, however, that in the case of a Derivative Work or Collective Work, at a minimum such credit will appear where any other comparable authorship credit appears and in a manner at least as prominent as such other comparable authorship credit.

5. Representations, Warranties and Disclaimer

UNLESS OTHERWISE AGREED TO BY THE PARTIES IN WRITING, LICENSOR OFFERS THE WORK AS-IS AND MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND CONCERNING THE MATERIALS, EXPRESS, IMPLIED, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTIBILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NONINFRINGEMENT, OR THE ABSENCE OF LATENT OR OTHER DEFECTS, ACCURACY, OR THE PRESENCE OF ABSENCE OF ERRORS, WHETHER OR NOT DISCOVERABLE. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES, SO SUCH EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.

6. Limitation on Liability.

EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW, IN NO EVENT WILL LICENSOR BE LIABLE TO YOU ON ANY LEGAL THEORY FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THIS LICENSE OR THE USE OF THE WORK, EVEN IF LICENSOR HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

7. Termination

  • This License and the rights granted hereunder will terminate automatically upon any breach by You of the terms of this License. Individuals or entities who have received Derivative Works or Collective Works from You under this License, however, will not have their licenses terminated provided such individuals or entities remain in full compliance with those licenses. Sections 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 will survive any termination of this License.
  • Subject to the above terms and conditions, the license granted here is perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright in the Work). Notwithstanding the above, Licensor reserves the right to release the Work under different license terms or to stop distributing the Work at any time; provided, however that any such election will not serve to withdraw this License (or any other license that has been, or is required to be, granted under the terms of this License), and this License will continue in full force and effect unless terminated as stated above.

8. Miscellaneous

  • Each time You distribute or publicly digitally perform the Work or a Collective Work, the Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License.
  • Each time You distribute or publicly digitally perform a Derivative Work, Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the original Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License.
  • If any provision of this License is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law, it shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the remainder of the terms of this License, and without further action by the parties to this agreement, such provision shall be reformed to the minimum extent necessary to make such provision valid and enforceable.
  • No term or provision of this License shall be deemed waived and no breach consented to unless such waiver or consent shall be in writing and signed by the party to be charged with such waiver or consent.
  • This License constitutes the entire agreement between the parties with respect to the Work licensed here. There are no understandings, agreements or representations with respect to the Work not specified here. Licensor shall not be bound by any additional provisions that may appear in any communication from You. This License may not be modified without the mutual written agreement of the Licensor and You.